• Poverty refers to the condition of not having the means to afford basic human needs such as clean water, nutrition, healthcare, clothing and shelter. 
  • Poverty is the condition of having fewer resources or less income than others within a society or country or compared to worldwide averages. 
  • Poverty is denial of choices and opportunities, a violation of human dignity. It means lack of basic capacity to participate effectively in society. 
  • It means insecurity, powerlessness etc. 
  • It means susceptibility to violence.

Types of Poverty

  1. Absolute – severe deprivation
  2. Relative – contextual definition – economic inequality in a region or society.

Causes of Poverty

  • Lack of education
  • Large scale import
  • Division of agricultural land
  • Moral culture – unfair practices to earn money
  • Govt policies
  • Corruption
  • Privatization
  • Overpopulation
  • Unemployment
  • Law and order
  • Increase in utility charges
  • Inflation
  • Imposition of tax
  • Non-productive expenditures
  • Low living standard
  • Landlordism
  • Nepotism
  • Backward infrastructure
  • Low rate of capital formation

Effects of Poverty

  • Child labour
  • Crimes and violence
  • Health problems
  • Homelessness
  • Shorter life
  • Hunger
  • Antisocial behaviour

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